Energy Technology Perspectives 2020 is a new IEA publication focused on the technology needs and opportunities for reaching international climate and sustainable energy goals. That share climbs to almost 100% by 2050 if no action is taken to manage the existing infrastructure’s emissions. This emphasises how necessary it is to rapidly develop technologies such as hydrogen and carbon capture. BRICS Completing the rest of the journey means paying more attention to the transport, industry and building sectors, which collectively account for about 55% of carbon emission from energy systems. This year’s Energy Technology Perspectives Report is the first core ETP report in three years, following a revamp of the series. It analyses more than 800 different technology options to assess what must happen for the world to reach net-zero emission by 2070, while still ensuring a resilient and secure energy system. By 2070 these electrolysers will consume twice the amount of electricity that China generates today. In the IEA scenario carbon capture will be used across a range of sectors, including the production of synthetic fuels and some low-carbon hydrogen. With global carbon emissions at unacceptably high levels, structural changes to energy systems are needed to achieve the kind of rapid and permanent decline in emissions needed to reach the world’s shared climate targets. The Report insists governments must play an outsized role in accelerating clean energy transitions toward meeting energy goals. It highlights core areas that policy makers must address to make this happen. It also notes that economic stimulus measures put into place to address a post-COVID-19 reality offer the opportunity to take urgent action that could boost economies while supporting clean energy and climate goals. AFD and Eskom commit to a competitive electricity sector Generation Read more:Carbon emissions: Balancing development with environmental concernsMaking the global economic recovery a carbon-free reboot Effect of inefficient systems on net-zero efforts Read more:Sectors that hold the key to achieving a net-zero economy: #wef20Cement and concrete industry targets a carbon neutral future Birol stated: “Ultra-low interest rates can help finance a growing number of clean energy projects. More governments and companies are throwing their weight behind these critical technologies, and all-important energy innovation may be about to take off.” Modern bioenergy would directly replace fossil fuels in areas such as transport, and offset emissions indirectly through its combined use with carbon capture. Much greater use of electricity in these sectors to power electric vehicles, recycle metals, heat buildings and other tasks, could make the single biggest contribution to reaching net-zero emissions, although many more technologies are needed, according to the report. Sign up for the ESI Africa newsletter Where does hydrogen fit into the world’s energy plans? Getting rid of pollution caused by the creation of electricity is not enough to reach the world’s carbon neutral goals. Image: Pixabay IEA executive director Dr Fatih Birol says solar is leading renewables to new heights in markets across the globe. Making sure that new clean energy technologies are available in time for key investment decisions to be made, is critical. For example, in heavy industries, strategically timed investments could help to avoid about 40% of cumulative emissions from existing infrastructure in these sectors. Accelerating innovation is crucial for this, and for scaling up the cleaning energy technology needed across the entire energy system. “However, we need even more countries and business to get on board. We need to redouble efforts to bring energy access to all those who currently lack it. We need to tackle emissions from the vast amounts of existing energy infrastructure in use worldwide, that threaten to put our shared goals out of reach,” explained Birol. The IEA report, Energy Technology Perspectives 2020, says an urgent push is needed to develop and deploy clean energy technologies worldwide to meet international energy and climate goals. The report finds that evolving only the power sector to clean energy, only limits global emissions by a third. Transforming solely the power sector only gets the world one-third of the way to net-zero emissions says a new International Energy Agency report, emphasising the need for greater efforts in other key sectors. Low carbon, solar future could increase jobs in the future – SAPVIA UNDP China, CCIEE launch report to facilitate low-carbon development “Despite the difficulties caused by the COVID-19 crises, several recent developments give us grounds for increased optimism about the world’s ability to accelerate clean energy transitions and reach its energy and climate goals. Still, major issues remain. This new IEA report not only shows the scale of the challenge but also offers vital guidance for overcoming it,” said Birol. The Energy Technology Perspective 2020 examines how to address the challenges of long-lasting energy assets already in existence. RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Finance and Policy There is a lot of pressure on hydrogen to play a large and varied role in helping the world to reach net-zero. It is expected to form a bridge between the power sector and the industries where the direct use of electricity are being challenged, such as shipping and steel. These include inefficient coal power plants, steel mills and cement kilns, most of which are recently built in emerging Asian economies and could conceivably be in operation for decades to come. It finds the power sector plus the heavy industry sector account for 60% of emission from existing energy infrastructure. TAGScarbon emissionsenergy efficiencyHydrogenIEAnet-zero emissionsTechnology Previous articleWorld Bank supports Mozambique’s skills development programmesNext articleSolarise Africa mobilises $10m for clean energy expansion Theresa SmithTheresa Smith is a conference producer for Clarion Events Africa. A truly blistering pace of technological transformation necessary for the world to reach net-zero emission by 2050 is explored in the Report’s Faster Innovation Case. That proposal finds that to meet the huge increase in demand for electricity, adding to the renewable energy power capacity would need to grow four times the current annual record reached in 2019. The IEA’s Sustainable Development Scenario (their suggested pathway to reach international energy and climate goals) says the global capacity of electrolysers, which produce hydrogen from water and electricity, will expand to 3,300GW by 2070, from 0.2GW today.
Frederik Eklund and John GomesThe rumor mill has been working overtime when it comes to Fredrik Eklund’s recent move to Los Angeles.Is he over the crazy pace of New York life? Is he Douglas Elliman’s not-so-secret weapon for growth in California?Season 8 of “Million Dollar Listing New York,” which debuts tonight, promises to reveal some of the pushes and pulls behind Eklund’s transition to West Coast life. But the most significant conversations about the decision — and the big-picture plan for the fast-expanding Eklund-Gomes team — won’t happen on Bravo.That’s because Eklund’s longtime business partner and team co-founder, John Gomes, goes to all lengths to avoid the cameras. So much so that he and Eklund-Gomes CEO Julia Spillman even joke that they have their own show, “Million Dollar Missing.”The two brokers recently sat down with The Real Deal in their new Flatiron office to speak frankly about what Eklund’s move means for them, their team and their business.“It’s part of a plan that’s been in the works for years,” Eklund said. “L.A. is having a moment right now … The scene is changing rapidly and so much wealth is concentrating there.”For Gomes, the expansion is part of a volume game and scaling up. “The truth is, for all of us in the future, to make the kind of money we’re making today, we’re simply gonna have to do more,” he said, noting that both he and Eklund are strong believers in being on the ground in-person to build up their business. The two already split their time between offices in three cities, including Miami.With Eklund’s new home base on the West Coast, he’ll be playing a bigger role in L.A., he said. But he plans to spend at least four days in the Big Apple every two weeks.And while you probably won’t see the following conversation on “Million Dollar Listing” anytime soon, Eklund confirmed that this isn’t the last time you’ll see him on TV.“There is def more Fredrik to watch on Bravo after this season,” he wrote in an email to TRD after the interview. Whether that means on MDLNY or MDLLA, or something different altogether, remains to be seen.This interview has been edited and condensed for clarity.You both spend a lot of time in L.A. How did you decide who would move and why it was Fredrik?Eklund: We talked about it, and even joked about it, like maybe we both go for a while. But it just turned out that I took on the role to go — maybe forever, maybe for a while, or maybe for a few years. We’ll see. It’s a big personal decision because of my kids and my husband having to relocate. But we felt like it was the right decision doing it now.Gomes: Like everything else Fredrik and I do, it was an organic choice. As his best friend, I always had this feeling that he should spend some time in California. I just feel like, for many different reasons, he’s supposed to be there.Eklund: A lot of people are asking questions. To me, it’s not that dramatic. I feel like I’ve been bi-coastal for the last year. Instead of going to L.A. every other week, I’m gonna go to New York every other week.How does L.A. fit into your plan for the Eklund-Gomes Team?Gomes: We’ve been waiting for the right time. I remember the down market in 2008 and 2009. We took advantage of that time to reshape our business. It’s no different now. It’s a down market and we are implementing the plan that we always had to expand.Eklund: We want to do what we did here in New York in California. We’re very long-term there. We want to build a name for ourselves as the go-to team for new development, and I want to be able to front that.Gomes: There’s a huge opportunity. When we started to look at the buildings there and the way people treat them, we were shocked. I know I personally was. Just looking at the renderings, the way that all the marketing collateral is done, and the sales galleries are put together, we just thought there was a tremendous opportunity to add a lot of value to that for developers.Can you elaborate on how you’re going to bring those same methods that have served you well in New York to the L.A. market?Gomes: Things in New York happen like this [snaps]. In L.A., it’s a little bit slower. You can take the New York agent out of New York, but you can’t take New York out of the agent. I have been working in the industry for almost 15 years at quite a fast pace so it will be hard to slow that down wherever I work.Eklund: I’m going to be there the most, so I’m not going to go there and say I’m going to do it better. Some of [this] is covered on the show — there’s been some commotion, you’ll see. I have a lot to learn and a lot of people to meet. We’re going to contribute a lot and we’re going to do really well, but it doesn’t need to be at anybody’s expense [among competitors].Gomes: What I will say is that we didn’t spend all this time and energy and money to go and expand to these markets to not be relevant within them.The L.A. market includes a lot of high-end single-family homes. “Going vertical” in L.A. is not really close to what it would mean in NYC. How are you going to tackle that?Eklund: It’s something I’m currently figuring out. I am forging really amazing relationships with some of the biggest agents [and] I feel really confident that we’re gonna break into the ultra-luxury there. Anything that’s incredible and is in the new development arena in California I’m going to go after.You recently announced that your first exclusive project in L.A. will be Townscape Partners’ condo and townhouse development 8899 Beverly and Fredrik will be the director of sales. How did that fit into your move?Eklund: Douglas Elliman had won it, and John and I fell in love with it. We went after a lot of big people within the company and tried to convince them that we were the right people for that project. There were many meetings where we got to know [the developer], and the more I learned, the more I wanted this building. They needed to get to know me as well. Every broker knows of this project and it’s such an important one — a decade in the making.Is this expansion coming from both of you, or is this something that Elliman is saying you should do?Eklund: John said it the best: If we [had] known how difficult the expansion would be, we probably wouldn’t have done it. Like you can say that you have a team in Miami and you have a team in L.A., but what does that really mean for your agents? What does that mean for the seller when you’re not fully there? What made it more difficult is that as it happened, cosmically, we had twins at the same time. Literally, in the same month.I was meaning to bring that up. Was that planned?Gomes: Everyone thought that was the end of Eklund-Gomes! Oh god, those two? Twins? Two sets of twins?Eklund: Two weeks after we had our twins we were back at work. That’s when we sat down with [Douglas Elliman’s chairman] Howard Lorber. That was the beginning of December 2017 and we said, “We have a great plan. We don’t know what we’re doing! But, trust us, become more of a business partner with us.” We showed him what we’re thinking and that it was right for us.Gomes: We were really nervous going in, honestly, and we made this pitch and he asked us, “Will this make you guys happy?” We looked at each other and we said, “Yeah.” And he said, “Well that will make me happy.” And he greenlighted the whole thing. He believes in us, and that was reassuring.Eklund: I think it [was] a good time in the company because they were about to buy the company they did in California and their presence in Miami is huge.Gomes: That was all part of it. We never would have gone to California and Miami if Douglas Elliman didn’t exist in those two markets.John, do you ever feel overshadowed by Fredrik’s larger-than-life TV persona and will you start playing a bigger part in running the New York office now?Gomes: He is so damn good on television and I just have no interest. One thing I will tell you that can be a little challenging and frustrating for me sometimes is that, because of the show, people on the outside think the Eklund-Gomes Team is really the Fredrik Eklund Team. And yes, they do sometimes overlook the Gomes. People are saying “Oh, what’s gonna happen with your business now that Fredrik is gone?” It’s like, “Well, by the way, Fredrik has been bicoastal for the past 12 to 14 months anyway.”Eklund: I think John is very good at picking up the pieces and really keeping things afloat. I have no patience and [I can] come up with a plan. But then, you know, you have to keep everything together. Over the years that’s been very important. But actually, you ask a hard question. I don’t think anyone is going to work less or more than we did, but it’s exciting to see [John], that you’re gonna have to take more of a lead here. And with the agents it’s already happening.Gomes: We just signed an amazing project, a prime Greenwich Village condo. And [Fredrik] actually wasn’t there to pitch. So I met with the developers. We’re very transparent. None of our developers are worried. Fredrik is still going to be very much involved. If anything, [he’s] more so involved because he feels a little bit disconnected. So he wants to make sure that he has his hands in the pot, so to speak.What are your goals for L.A.? This time in a year, what are you hoping your numbers look like?Eklund: I want to take a low key, humble approach, and I don’t want to be held to numbers. This content is for subscribers only.Subscribe Now
Fresh off the campaign trail, former Maryland governor and presidential hopeful Martin O’Malley joined South Bend Mayor Pete Buttigieg, Notre Dame’s vice president for research Robert Bernhard and senior Alicia Czarnecki on a panel discussing University-city partnerships. Chris Collins | The Observer Governor Martin O’Malley, Mayor Pete Butigieg, junior Alicia Czarnecki and vice president for research Robert Bernhard sit at Thursday night’s panel in McKenna Hall.“I ran for President and I came home with a lot of lessons learned, some of them weren’t happy lessons,” O’Malley said. “But one lesson I did learn was that people care a lot about how their cities are governed and how their cities are led.”O’Malley said he emphasizes the importance of a positive relationship between the city and university. “There is huge value in a city and university partnership, which is something your mayor very clearly gets,” he said. When O’Malley assumed the office of Mayor of Baltimore in 1999, he said he did not inherit the city at its best. “We had allowed ourselves to become the most violent, addicted city in America,” he said. “But people wanted to change that.” O’Malley said that, while the city faced a number of challenges, he thinks building trust between citizens and their local government is of the utmost importance.“I think the biggest challenge we can address is to restore the trust that seems so frayed in our national political conversation,” he said. “I would submit to you that the only way to do that is to make our cities more just and more fair places.”Improvements to that level of trust are being made, O’Malley said, and he is hopeful for the future.“I think there are many reasons why people in our cities today who feel a lot better about how their cities are run and led,” he said. “The great hope that I see is that we’re actually restoring trust.”Buttigieg agreed that trust plays a major role, particularly with the relationship between universities and the cities they are in. “I think we benefit from the fact that this is one of the communities that never really had a hostile relationship with the University,” Buttigieg said. “As Notre Dame is becoming a great global university, these collaborations are happening right here in our backyard.”Czarnecki said she appreciated the value of the opportunity to collaborate with the South Bend community. “From the student perspective, I think it’s an important thing to be involved in the community early on in your academic career because it provides something uniquely challenging and it’s something completely different than what you’re learning in your textbooks,” she said. Similarly, Buttigieg said it benefits the student to work with the city because it provides a diversifying factor. “How are you going to distinguish yourself?” he said. “You’re going to be able to say you worked with a very diverse group of people and you had to learn how to listen to them to solve a problem.”O’Malley said that when he was first elected mayor, he was approached by the president of Johns Hopkins University. “He said, you know, we have one thing in common, and that is that we have inherited two organizations that have existed long before we got here and will exist long after,” he said. As such, O’Malley said they focused on creating collaborations that would make benefit both of the institutions. “It’s most helpful for mayors to be very clear with their university partners on the problems they would like to collaborate to solve,” he said. There is a test that Buttigieg said he uses to determine whether or not a city-university partnership is successful. “Is the city better because the University is there and then, simultaneously, is the University better off because it is in this city instead of another city,” he said. Buttigieg said that he likes to focus on maintaining that positive and collaborative relationship between Notre Dame and South Bend. “If we do solve something here, it’s really going to matter to a whole bunch of other cities,” Buttigieg said. Tags: Martin O’Malley, Mayor Pete Buttigieg, Pete Buttigieg, South Bend
Audinate has announced the availability of Dante Virtual Soundcard for installation in virtual Windows environments using Type-1 hypervisors. This update is especially important for customers such as broadcasters, educators and corporate users that want to deploy Dante networked audio throughout data centers, studios, server clusters and campuses. Dante Virtual Soundcard interfaces directly with audio software running on virtual machines, allowing distribution of media playback, centralized recording and more.Dante Virtual Soundcard turns any computer into a Dante endpoint for networked audio. It provides a standard WDM or ASIO audio interface that allows any installed audio software to send and receive up to 64 channels of lossless audio over a standard 1Gbps network to any Dante-enabled AV endpoints, including other instances of Dante Virtual Soundcard. Dante Virtual Soundcard is an ideal solution for computer-driven media playback, multi-channel recording and lecture capture and is 100 percent compatible with the more than 2,000 Dante-enabled products available from multiple vendors.Dante Virtual Soundcard with support for installation on virtual machines is available from Audinate in multi-activation license editions only and may not be purchased from the Audinate web store.Audinate is here.
Final meet for seniors will be bittersweet for coachesJules AmeelDaily File PhotoMarch 12, 2009Jump to CommentsShare on FacebookShare on TwitterShare via EmailPrintThis NCAA Championship meet will be bittersweet for the Minnesota womenâÄôs swimming and diving team. This meet will feature seniors from coaches Terry Nieszner and Kelly KremerâÄôs first recruiting class. Minnesota hosts the meet at the University Aquatic Center today through Sunday. Kremer said itâÄôs not going to be easy watching the graduating seniors swim in their last meet of the season. âÄúItâÄôs going to fun to see them swim,âÄù he said. âÄúWeâÄôre going to miss the heck out of this group.âÄù Fifteen swimmers will represent Minnesota at the meet, the most in school history. Seniors Stacy Busack, Christine Jennings, Yuen Kobayashi, Meredith McCarthy and Jenny Shaughnessy are making their fourth trip to the meet. Seven swimmers are entering the NCAA championship meet for the first time, four of which are first years. âÄúEvery year has gotten more and more fun,âÄù she said. âÄúRight now we are trying to stay relaxed and rested and ready to go.âÄù In order to get ready, practices are different than during the regular season, Shaughnessy said. Minnesota has a very well balanced team, Kremer said, with Minnesota being represented in every swimming event. Sophomore Jillian Tyler enters the meet with the second-fastest time in the 100 breast stroke and third in the 200 breast stroke. âÄúMy thoughts going into this meet are that we have the best team in recent memory,âÄù Kremer said. âÄúAs coach it gives you a lot of confidence and gives you a lot to be excited about.âÄù The last two years, Minnesota has finished 13th overall. This year, a team goal is to finish in the top ten, something the Gophers know wonâÄôt be easy. âÄúNow with this group of seniors, itâÄôd be nice to see them improve on their 13th place finish,âÄù Kremer said.
At the event, which was sponsored by the Tucker Center, sport and exercise psychology associate professor Dr. Diane Wiese-Bjornstal presented her research, which explains how an athlete’s environment affects his or her likelihood of suffering injuries. When an athlete is injured, it is important to his or her well-being to remain directly involved with the team, Wiese-Bjornstal said. Frost also said his team is comfortable in communicating all sorts of issues to the coaching staff, including injuries. This practice is evident with Minnesota’s women’s hockey team. When team members are injured, head coach Brad Frost encourages them to participate in practice by either continuing to learn the game or helping out with drills. “The culture of sport that we have now, especially at the more elite levels, seems to overemphasize performance and underemphasize health,” she said. “To me, they’re equally important, so I would never be willing to sacrifice health for the sake of performance.” By observing past Gophers’ cross country rosters, she found high levels of stress usually follow injuries, and those situations can be amended if coaches play a positive role. Fewer injuries occur when a team’s culture is positive and open, according to the research, and when players are still involved in team activities despite being hurt. “The goal is to make everybody the best athlete they can be,” Merzbacher said. “But you have to put people’s health first.” “The only way our players can perform at their best is if they’re healthy,” he said. By encouraging communication, planning physical and mental recovery processes and effectively reporting injuries, a team’s culture could change. “Coaches are so busy. It’s the X’s and O’s, the parents and so much more that they have to deal with,” she said. “They feel [handling an injury is] someone else’s job.” Now, Wiese-Bjornstal aims to educate coaches to help them monitor injured student-athletes. And several Gophers head coaches already include facets of the associate kinesiology professor’s methods. Unlike some other Minnesota teams where injured athletes play a heavy participatory role, in Merzbacher’s program, injured players solely focus on recovery. “Injuries are a part of athletics. If you’re having an issue, you then have to become an active participant in the training room,” he said. Coaches’ role addressing injuries shifts with times Sam KraemerApril 21, 2015Jump to CommentsShare on FacebookShare on TwitterShare via EmailPrintDozens of female coaches from across the state convened at TCF Bank Stadium on Friday to better understand how collegiate coaches and female athletes work together to address injuries. At Friday’s event, Wiese-Bjornstal pushed the importance of creating a welcoming culture between players and coaches, and there’s room for teams across collegiate athletics to improve with making athletes feel comfortable. Women’s tennis head coach Chuck Merzbacher said in recent years, his program has improved the communication between player, coach and trainer.
Getting to know Vishal Joseph – Guyana’s CARICOM Youth AmbassadorFive of the Region’s CARICOM Youth Ambassadors attended the Caribbean Forum on Youth Population and Development earlier this week in Georgetown, Guyana. The Forum was held through a collaboration with the CARICOM Secretariat the Caribbean Development Bank (CDB), EU Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, (UNECLAC), United Nations Population Fund…July 28, 2018In “Associate Member States”CARICOM ASG highlights progress in Youth DevelopmentAssistant Secretary General, Human and Social Development at the CARICOM Secretariat Dr, Douglas Slater, has highlighted a number of areas where progress has been made in youth development in the Region. Dr. Slater was speaking at the opening ceremony of a CARICOM Youth Ambassadors Orientation and Capacity Building Workshop. The…June 5, 2017In “Anguilla”CARICOM SG to host social media interaction on entrepreneurship with youthYoung people from across the Region will have an opportunity to interact with the CARICOM Secretary General Ambassador Irwin LaRocque via social media on 29 June 2015. The event, which is happening just before the Thirty Sixth Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government of CARICOM in Barbados, is an initiative…June 25, 2015In “Barbados”Share this on WhatsApp Saint Lucia Reparations Committee welcomes new CARICOM Youth… Getting to know Vishal Joseph – Guyana’s CARICOM… You may be interested in… Nov 8, 2016 Former CARICOM Youth Ambassador serves as UNESCO Panelist at… Vishal is forever grateful that his parents, Lennox Joseph and Savitri Singh, along with his caring teachers, paid attention to his education, and provided the nudge he needed to excel academically. Vishal would not elaborate on the details regarding the challenges he faced when he was just about to begin sixth form, but he did say that the circumstances at the time required that he live on his own. Through it all, he came out successfully with 12 subjects at the CSEC examinations. Read more at: Guyana Chronicle Share this:PrintTwitterFacebookLinkedInLike this:Like Loading… Oct 5, 2016 (Guyana Chronicle)LIFE has not always been smooth sailing for Vishal Hulbert Joseph, who was forced to make a few decisions that would prove crucial to his future endeavours. In fact, at just 17, he was practically on his own, pursuing sixth form studies and a job at the same time. Vishal shared his story just recently with the Guyana Chronicle, and he could not help but reflect on how well his life has turned out, even though he had quite a few bumpy roads to travel. A ‘Georgetown’ boy all his life, Vishal completed all of his education on Camp Street. He began at the Starter’s Nursery School, and then pressed on to St. Margaret’s Primary and Queen’s College, where he completed sixth form. Jul 28, 2018
“Initially you form these tiny fingers that are too small to observe… but quickly they interact with each other as they move down, and form larger and larger structures,” said Raphael Ouillon, a mechanical engineer at the University of California Santa Barbara and lead author of the new study. Researchers walk along the bank of the Dead Sea, one of Earth’s saltiest bodies of water. It is nearly 10 times saltier than the ocean. Courtesy/Nadav Lensky/Geological Survey of Israel Salt crystals form on instruments dipped into the Dead Sea. Courtesy/Nadav Lensky/Geological Survey of Israel “The initial fingers might only be a few millimeters or a couple of centimeters thick, but they’re everywhere across the entire surface of the lake,” said Eckart Meiburg, also a mechanical engineer at UC Santa Barbara and co-author of the new study. “Together these small fingers generate a tremendous amount of salt flux.” A salty mystery WASHINGTON, D.C. — New research explains why salt crystals are piling up on the deepest parts of the Dead Sea’s floor, a finding that could help scientists understand how large salt deposits formed in Earth’s geologic past. “Altogether this makes the Dead Sea a unique system,” said Nadav Lensky, a geologist with the Geological Survey of Israel and co-author of the new study. “Basically, we have here a new finding that we think is very relevant to the understanding of the arrangement of these basins that were so common in Earth’s history.” Scientists first noticed in 1979, after this process had started, that salt crystals were precipitating out of the top layer of water, “snowing” down and piling up on the lakebed. The salt layer on the lake floor has been growing about 10 centimeters (4 inches) thicker every year. They propose that when the top layer of the lake is disturbed by waves or other motion, tiny parcels of warm water enter the cooler pool of water below. Heat diffuses more rapidly than salt, so this warm water parcel rapidly cools. But as it cools it holds less salt, so the salt precipitates out and forms crystals that sink to the bottom. Watch an animation of the salt fingers here. The Dead Sea, a salt lake bordered by Jordan, Israel and the West Bank, is nearly 10 times as salty as the ocean. Humans have visited the Dead Sea for thousands of years to experience its purported healing properties and to float in its extremely dense, buoyant waters, and mention of the sea goes back to biblical times. Satellite images of the Dead Sea taken in 1972 and 2011, showing how much water levels have dropped since Israel and Jordan began diverting much of the freshwater entering the Dead Sea. Courtesy/NASA After several hundred thousand years, the Mediterranean’s water levels dropped so much that the sea partly or nearly dried out, leaving behind thick deposits of salt. The new finding suggests these deposits formed during this time in a similar manner to what is happening right now in the Dead Sea. When the Strait of Gibraltar opened up again, water flooded the basin and the salt deposits were buried under new layers of sediment, where they remain today. Much of the freshwater feeding the Dead Sea has been diverted in recent decades, lowering the sea’s water levels and making it saltier than before. The new finding also helps explain the formation of massive salt deposits found within Earth’s crust. AGU News: One notable example is the thick salt layer underneath the Mediterranean Sea. Researchers know that about six million years ago, the Strait of Gibraltar closed off, because of the movements of Earth’s tectonic plates. This cut off the supply of water from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean, creating a giant shallow inland sea. An aerial view of the Dead Sea taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. New research explains why salt crystals are piling up on the deepest parts of the Dead Sea’s floor, a finding that could help scientists understand how large salt deposits formed in Earth’s geologic past. Courtesy/NASA/Hubble The process driving this salt crystal “snow” and buildup of salt layers on the lakebed has puzzled scientists because it doesn’t make sense according to the laws of physics. Now, a new study in AGU’s journal Water Resources Research proposes that tiny disturbances in the lake, caused by waves or other motion, create “salt fingers” that slowly funnel salt down to the lakebed. Watch a video about this research here. In the new study, researchers created a computer simulation of how water and salt would flow in the Dead Sea if the salt fingers theory was correct. They found the salt fingers theory correctly predicted the downward flow of salt snow and buildup of salt layers in the middle of the lake’s floor. Because the level of the lake is declining, due to pumping of freshwater from the nearby Jordan River, the salt layers are concentrated in the central part of the lake, according to the authors. The Dead Sea is only hypersaline water body on Earth today where this salt fingering process is happening, so it represents a unique laboratory for researchers to study the mechanisms by which these thick salt deposits have formed, according to the authors. Understanding salt deposits elsewhere The new finding helps researchers better understand the physics of the Dead Sea but also helps explain the formation of massive salt deposits found within Earth’s crust. “We know that many places around the world have thick salt deposits in the Earth’s crust, and these deposits can be up to a kilometer thick,” Meiburg said. “But we’re uncertain how these salt deposits were generated throughout geological history.” Lensky and his colleagues proposed an explanation in 2016, and the new research tests this theory for the first time. Researchers realized the salt snow they observed was originating in this top salty layer, but this warm water doesn’t mix with the cooler water below because it’s so much warmer and less dense. So they were puzzled as to how salt from the surface was entering the cooler layer and plummeting to the bottom of the lake. As the Dead Sea has become saltier in recent decades, much of that salt has become concentrated near its surface. During the summer, extra heat from the Sun warms the surface of the Dead Sea and divides it into two distinct layers: A warm top layer sitting atop a colder lower layer. As water evaporates from the top layer in the summer heat, it becomes saltier than the cooler layer below.
GUEST-WORTHY RECIPE:Chef Wayne Elias of Crumble CateringINSTAGRAM: @Elias.WayneCHEF ELIAS’S RECIPE: Sweet & Savory Grilled Cheese, made for Elton John’s Oscar PartyWHY? “I have been making this recipe for grilled raisin bread sandwiches filled with mascarpone, gorgonzola, and Asian pears for 14 years. It’s simple, but creative, [and] has these great flavors. Consider it a grown-up grilled cheese.”INGREDIENTS6 slices of thin sliced raisin bread3 oz mascarpone cheese3 oz gorgonzola cheese1 Bosc pear, peeled, cored, and sliced thin2 oz butter, for grilling in panDIRECTIONSPlace six slices of raisin bread on work table. Spread the mascarpone cheese evenly on all slices.Sprinkle the gorgonzola evenly on three of the raisin bread slices. On top of the cheese, place 4 to 5 slices of pear. Place the other bread slice on top and close the sandwich.In a sauté pan, melt the 2 oz of butter and over low to medium heat, grill the sandwiches on both sides until golden brown.To serve, trim the edges off the sandwiches and cut into a cross-cross to form four little triangle pieces. Plate, serve, and garnish with fresh herbs. Share
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