LHC now colder than deep space

first_img The LHC’s eight sectors have all been cooled to 1.9 kelvin (-271 C, or -456 F) using cryogenic lines containing liquid helium. This operating temperature is colder than conditions in deep space, which is estimated to be 2.7 K. Zero K is the lowest temperature possible.The magnets that bend particle beams around the LHC need to be this cold because at these low temperatures they become superconductors, channeling electric current with almost no power loss, and with zero resistance.In the LHC experiments, two beams of protons will be fired in opposite directions through the ring between the magnets. They will reach close to the speed of light, and smash into one another at four collision points. The collisions are predicted to produce thousands of particles, which will be studied by the scientists, The results are expected to shed new light on the nature of the universe and its beginnings. A magnet problem dubbed a “quench” in September 2008 resulted in the LHC particle accelerator being shut down after a tonne of liquid helium leaked into the LHC tunnel. The facility had to be warmed up to allow for the approximately $40 million in repairs to be carried out.Now the LHC ring is cooled again magnet powering tests can be carried out. In the commissioning process the magnets are powered with gradually increasing current until the operating current of 6 kA is reached. This current is needed to guide the particle beams, which will travel at a nominal energy of 3.5 TeV.CERN will also carry out thorough tests of components of the new quench protection system before the particle collision experiments can begin. The system comprises hundreds of new detectors designed to detect any splice malfunctions at a sufficiently early stage for the machine to be protected. The new system should prevent further incidents like the one that shut down the LHC last year. A low intensity beam test involving parts of the collider could be carried out before November, while particle collision experiments with low intensity beams are expected in late November. If these are successful, the energy of the beams will be increased, with high energy collisions scheduled for December or January.Director of communications with CERN, James Gillies said the high-energy collisions would require delicate operation of the accelerator. He likened the relative distances in the operation to firing knitting needles across the Atlantic and making them smash into each other half way across.The LHC is the most powerful particle accelerator ever built. Its magnets are lined end to end in a circular tunnel 27 km in circumference, buried 50 to 175 meters underground beneath the border between Switzerland and France. Operated by CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) at Geneva, the facility is designed to recreate conditions immediately following the Big Bang.More information: • CERN bulletin: cdsweb.cern.ch/journal/article … icles&number=3&ln=en• 3 Questions: Steven Nahn on the elusive Higgs boson© 2009 PhysOrg.com (PhysOrg.com) — The LHC (Large Hadron Collider) is once again colder than deep space as it is prepared for experiments to resume in late November. The LHC tunnel Citation: LHC now colder than deep space (2009, October 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-10-lhc-colder-deep-space.html Particle accelerator to be ready in ’07 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore furtherlast_img read more

Criticality in morphogenesis

first_img Development of a fly embryo in real time To evaluate this prediction, the researchers used measurements of the protein concentrations of the gene products rather than the direct mRNA expression levels. They report that this immunostaining method gives protein concentrations that are accurate to within 3% of the expression levels. Their results they obtained were in good agreement with these predictions for criticality. They also looked at the correlations between gap gene fluctuations at each position in the embryo. For the “crossing regions” where the levels were transiently the same, the correlation coefficient was found to approach -1, indicating perfect anticorrelation as expected at criticality.The authors suggest that the gap gene network must be finely tuned in order to generate the observed large differences in the timescales for variation in different directions. Similar tuning should be required to maintain the observed correlations over large distances. At the same time however, there must also be a certain level of robustness to details like sequence variation and alterations in the environment in which the embryo develops.Within this particular study, only a couple components of transcription were even evaluated. The authors note that transcriptional regulation is just one context where criticality can operate in biological systems. A similar approach may be taken to look at other systems like for example, neural networks critically poised between quiescence and seizure, or the group behavior of flocks schools. The idea of “avalanches” of all sizes occurring in the system might even be applied to ideas of punctuated equilibrium in evolutionary biology as whole. Looking for deeper principles in biology is perhaps somewhat of a subjective business, but starting with well defined examples backed with abundant data is a great place to start. Gap genes are of particular interest in Drosophila where they serve as “maternal effect genes.” Here they directly transduce information from the mother to the embryo through residual mRNA and other cell components. Gap genes can control development through specific patterns generated in part by cross regulation and mutual inhibition. While it is possible that the phenotype, or appearance, of the organism arises from the actions of attractors in the gap gene dynamical system, the timing of critical events in embryogenesis need not necessarily correspond to critical points in gene expression. In the middle region of the embryo two gap genes, Hb and Kr are expressed at significant levels around the time period specific to the 14th nuclear division cycle. One prediction of criticality is that fast dynamics in expression levels should occur in directions along the embryo where the fluctuations are small, and slow dynamics (variations over time periods of an hour) should occur in the directions where their are large fluctuations. (Phys.org) —In many regards, a brief time-lapse video can teach more about embryonic development than any amount of reading. It is hard not to be impressed how a repeatable form reliably emerges despite considerable variation in both genes and environment. While it had been hoped that concepts borrowed from statistical mechanics or the ideas of self-organized criticality could help to create some kind of physics-based theory of development, much of what has been done lies only at the level of metaphor. In a paper just released to ArXiv, William Bialek and his colleagues from Princeton University, have taken their search for the signature of criticality in a more specific direction. They looked at a particular set of transcription factors in Drosophila embryos which control spatiotemporal development. By analyzing fluctuations in the expression levels of these so-called gap genes, they found evidence for critical tuning in this particular network. Journal information: arXiv Explore further The TALE of new tools to study gene regulation © 2013 Phys.org More information: Morphogenesis at criticality? arXiv:1309.2614 [q-bio.MN] arxiv.org/abs/1309.2614AbstractSpatial patterns in the early fruit fly embryo emerge from a network of interactions among transcription factors, the gap genes, driven by maternal inputs. Such networks can exhibit many qualitatively different behaviors, separated by critical surfaces. At criticality, we should observe strong correlations in the fluctuations of different genes around their mean expression levels, a slowing of the dynamics along some but not all directions in the space of possible expression levels, correlations of expression fluctuations over long distances in the embryo, and departures from a Gaussian distribution of these fluctuations. Analysis of recent experiments on the gap genes shows that all these signatures are observed, and that the different signatures are related in ways predicted by theory. While there might be other explanations for these individual phenomena, the confluence of evidence suggests that this genetic network is tuned to criticality. Spatiotemporal patterns in Gap Gene mRNA Expression. Credit: naef-lab.epfl.ch Citation: Criticality in morphogenesis (2013, September 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-09-criticality-morphogenesis.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Nickel78 confirmed to be doubly magic

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2017 Phys.org More information: A. Welker et al. Binding Energy of Cu79 : Probing the Structure of the Doubly Magic Ni78 from Only One Proton Away, Physical Review Letters (2017). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.192502 L. Olivier et al. Persistence of the Z=28 Shell Gap Around Ni78 : First Spectroscopy of Cu79, Physical Review Letters (2017). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.192501 Explore further In the world of physics, magic numbers describe protons or neutrons in orbital shells separated by the greatest energy gaps. When both protons and neutrons are magic, the nucleus is deemed doubly magic. In their never-ending search to understand matter, scientists have studied magic and doubly magic nuclei and found some to be particularly difficult to pin down. Nickel-78 is a prime example. Study has been hampered by its tendency to be short lived and the difficulty in producing it at all. In this new effort, both teams have resorted to tricks to show that it is, indeed, doubly magic.In the first approach, the team led by Olivier used a knockout reaction to eject a proton from a zinc-80 projectile, resulting in a copper-79 nucleus. They then used shell model calculations to show that copper-79 could be characterized as a doubly magic nickel-78 nucleus with an added proton. In the second approach, the team measured the mass of the copper isotopes in a chain from copper-75 to 79 using technology at CERN. They used what they found to show that copper-79 can be characterized as an individual proton sitting atop a doubly magic nickel-78 core.While the methods used by the second team were quite different, the results were in agreement—nickel-78 is, indeed, doubly magic. This is not the end of the story, however, because both studies involved indirect approaches. Thus, nickel-78 will not be considered proven as doubly magic until it can be shown directly. To do that, some future research team will need to produce it in a lab in a way that allows for direct testing. Nickel-78 is a ‘doubly magic’ isotope, supercomputing calculations confirmcenter_img (Phys.org)—Two teams of researchers working independently of one another and using wildly different approaches have confirmed nickel-78 to be doubly magic. In the first effort, an international team led by Louis Olivier with the National Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics produced a copper-79 nucleus and used it as a framework for describing nickel-78. In the second effort, a team with members from across Europe approached the problem by using an advanced weighing technique. Both teams have published their results in the journal Physical Review Letters. Journal information: Physical Review Letters Citation: Nickel-78 confirmed to be doubly magic (2017, November 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-11-nickel-doubly-magic.html Occupation levels from the PFSDG-U calculation given in total numbers of protons and neutrons along the copper chain (for even N). Credit: (c) Physical Review Letters (2017). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.192502last_img read more

UCO Banks Q2 income soars 13 to Rs 5257 cr

first_imgState-run UCO Bank has reported a 74 per cent plunge in net profit to Rs 103 crore for the second quarter of the current fiscal due to higher provisioning for bad loans. The bank’s profit in the comparable period of the previous fiscal stood at Rs 400.2 crore.UCO Bank Chairman and Managing Director Arun Kaul attributed the steep fall in profit to higher provisioning. Total income in the quarter under review increased 12.97 per cent to Rs 5,257 crore while total interest income showed a growth of 10.21 per cent to Rs 4,898 crore, he told reporters here. Also Read – I-T issues 17-point checklist to trace unaccounted DeMO cashAs on September 30, 2014, the gross non-performing assets (NPA) ratio of the bank stood at 5.20 per cent (5.32 per cent) of total advances while net non-performing assets stood at 3.15 per cent (3.13 per cent). Kaul said that slippages in assets belonging to the infrastructure sector were the main reason for fresh non-performing assets of Rs 2,100 crore during the quarter.He added that domestic credit offtake was low as AAA rated corporates and Central public sector undertakings (CPSUs) were sourcing cheap funds from outside sources and not coming to the bank. UCO bank, Kaul informed, is expecting good recovery from old NPAs during the current quarter.The net interest margin (NIM) of the bank during the quarter stood at 2.60 per cent (3.10 per cent) while the total business of the bank at the end of second quarter stood at Rs 3,46,716 crore.last_img read more

Coal India videographs strikers reports normal operation

first_imgKolkata: Coal India Ltd (CIL) on Tuesday said operations were normal in all its subsidiaries as one of the central trade unions observed a protest demonstration on Monday against the Centre’s move to allow commercial mining. The four central trade unions — CITU, BMS, HMS and AITUC — had served a joint strike notice on March 14 but subsequently, they withdrew the strike which was scheduled for Monday. CITU was the lone union to head off and called for a protest day against the commercial mining. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flights”To ensure no loss to production and off-take Coal India management made elaborate arrangements and a multi-pronged plan was put into action at all mines of CIL,” the miner said in a statement.According to it, all the subsidiary companies of the miner geared up by setting up videography and photography arrangements at mine level to identify the persons taking part in the strike.”The arrangements were so elaborate that the operations in all the subsidiaries of CIL were normal on Monday except for few stray incidents where protesters tried to sit on dharna but it did not succeed and no adverse effect on production related activities was reported anywhere,” the coal behemoth said. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedIn a bid to ward off the strike, Union Minister of Railways and Coal, Piyush Goyal had invited the four trade unions BMS, HMS, AITUC and CITU for a meeting in Mumbai where their apprehensions were sought to be “dispelled in a proper perspective”.Subsequently, the next round of meeting was held with Secretary (Coal) as a result of which the four trade unions agreed to call off the strike in principle, the miner said.In fact, BMS and HMS inked their pact to steer clear-off the strike. Though AITUC did not formalise their consent through signature, nevertheless they agreed to back off.last_img read more

Authentic health info is now a click away

first_imgOne of the major highlights of the Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s 100 days action plan was the aim to improve the performance of the health sector in the country. In order to improve the health literacy and to provide authentic health information, Union Health Minister JP Nadda had launched the National Health Portal (NHP) at the Health pavilion of India International Trade Fair, in November last year. The portal addresses one of the common problems like availability of reliable, high quality information for the promotion of health amongst the people.  National Health Portal (NHP) aims to resolve this issue by acting as a single point of access for authentic health information and promote health literacy amongst a wide spectrum of users including general public, students, health care professionals and researchers. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’In today’s age there is no dearth of information available on the web, but it is available in scattered form. The NHP acts as the first point of access for any health information. The portal has detailed information on various topics ranging from handy health tips, disease based information, government health policies and programs, disaster management, health facilities around you, laws and governance, redressal mechanism, healthy lifestyle,  career options for students and other health related information.Indian Government has been taking initiatives to revive traditional medicine and NHP goes a step further in promoting the same by giving in depth information about AYUSH.  Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix(Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy)A prominent feature of this portal is the voice web. The voice web is a 24X7 toll free helpline (1800-180-1104), which  was launched by Nadda on July 2 as a part of Digital India Week wherein best practices and innovations in public health care systems were recognised. The NHP voice web is capable of recognising user voice input. Currently the information is available  in English, Hindi, Tamil, Bangla and Gujarati languages.last_img read more

Govt to spend Rs 7000 crore for developing infrastructure of city

first_imgKolkata: The state government will go for an expenditure of Rs 7,000 crore for further infrastructure development in Kolkata.The initiative has been taken with a vision of making Alipore in South Kolkata “clean and green”. This comes at the time when Baruipur Correctional Home was inaugurated, to which Alipore Central Correctional Home is getting shifted. Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee made the announcement of the Rs 7,000 crore investment for infrastructure development from a programme at Nabanna Sabhaghar on Wednesday, in which the Biswa Bangla Sharad Samman award was given to different Durga Puja committees. The Chief Minister inaugurated Baruipur Correctional Home, Narendrapur Police Station in South 24-Parganas, the new buildings of Barasat police station, Bakultala police station and Jhargram Police Line. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeBanerjee said: “Today the Baruipur Correctional Home has been inaugurated, where the Alipore Central Correctional Home will be shifted. The space of Alipore Central Correctional Home will be used for some good purpose. We will decorate Alipore as a green and clean city and a new project worth Rs 7,000 crore will come to Kolkata.” “We have carried out record development of infrastructure in a very short time. Around Rs 33,000 crore has been given for infrastructure development. No one has become successful in carrying out such infrastructure development in such a short period of time,” she added. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedThe development work was carried out despite the state clearing huge debts. “We cleared debts of Rs 25,000 crore in 2011 after coming to power, as CPI(M) had taken huge loans and they had even touched the small savings. The amount went up to Rs 28,000 crore, Rs 30,000 crore and Rs 38,000 crore in the subsequent years. We have given Rs 48,000 crore in 2017-18 and the amount would be around Rs 48,000 to 50,000 crore in 2018-19 as well,” she said, adding that Bengal would have run the entire country if it didn’t have to clear the debt of Rs 48,000 crore. After inaugurating the new building of Jhargram Police Line, Banerjee said: “Earlier, there was no place to stay in Jhargram. We are developing the necessary infrastructure now.” She further said that around 20 lakh people visit Gangasagar Mela in Sagar Island. So, necessary infrastructure has also been developed there. “We have also decided to give 74 percent share of Tajpur Port to the Centre, provided they construct a bridge to connect Sagar Island with the main land,” the Chief Minister said. Mentioning the issue of spitting on the newly built skywalk at Dakshineswar, she urged the Durga Puja committees and clubs to create awareness about keeping their areas clean.last_img read more