Moorestown: Much more than an iPhone killer

first_imgFirst let me say I’m not on the inside track with Moorestown. I’m an outside observer with my own perspective on this product, but I have to say… I think this will be HUGE. Lot’s of talk about the Moorestown platform at IDF this year and I’ve heard many refer to this as the iPhone killer, or next generation iPhone. The game changer is size, the processing power, and WiMax capabilities. This is much more than anything in the market now. It can be almost anything you want it to be, and what you want it to do might be more about what devices it talks to. Here’s my personal speculation on potential uses for Moorestown.Harmony Remote Killer: This one is easy. Unlike the iphone with this kind of device you should be able to add and download applications and be configure to do pretty much what you want it to do. It’s the size of a remote. It has bluetooth and WiMax. It should be able to talk to all of your AV stuff and replace your most advanced universal remotes.GameBoy/PSP Killer: This be will run on Intel’s next generation 45nm chips. It should far exceed anything any hand held game system can do today. You could host games on the fly with people near you or host over the Internet. I actually believe this could be an XBox Killer. It will have the horsepower, it will be ultimately connected. It just needs peripherals like a dock or wireless connectivity to a large display and keyboard. Drop it on your coffee table, turn on your wall mounted LCD, pick up a wireless controller and you are gaming.Desktop Killer: Yes, a desktop killer. Again it should have the horsepower. It will have highspeed connections and a full blown browser. More and more apps are moving to the web. There’s a lot of talk about the death of the application, as applications can be run in the browser. Drop it on your desk, have it detect and synch with your wireless keyboard, mouse and monitor and you are working. Also more IT shops are starting to see the value of OS and application streaming technology where you can pull down the apps you need when you need them. Edit a spreadsheet, crop a photo, do a CAD Design, all apps come from the network when you need them, wherever you are.Storage may only an issue for the few things you need locally. With WiMax, songs, videos, applications could all be available at your finger tips whether you have them stored on your PC, DVR, or from a service provider. You could ultimately have any data or any application on a powerful mobile device on your hip, in your pocket or in your purse. My perspective is Moorestown is shaping up to be the ubiquitous everything device. I discussed this idea 2 years ago with an Intel engineer, during a school fundraiser. I claimed if Intel could create the device the size of cell phone with the processing power of a PC, you would not need any other device other than peripherals. I was new, I was in marketing and he thought I was nuts. And he pretty much told me so, citing that he didn’t see how Intel would profit from it. A couple of weeks later I saw him again and he was anxious to tell me he just saw a presentation that discussed exactly what I was talking about. I’d like to think this is Moorestown… and personally I can’t wait!!last_img read more

The Eco-Technology Great Debates @ Intel Developer Forum 2008 San Francisco

first_img Attendees will learn about the pros and cons of high-density computing versus low-density computing and ready-to-use container data centers versus traditional brick and mortar data centers. There will also be a panel discussion on energy efficiency metrics, which will take a look at everything from chips to cooling systems and how they play a role in energy efficiency. Hank Lea and myself (Jason Davidson) will be covering the Eco-Technology debates at the Marriot Hotel in San Francisco on Monday, August 18th. We will also be hosting a blog talk radio show around this event at 5:15 PM. In my tenure at Intel, I have had the pleasure of walking into major companies, educational institutes, non-profits, and government agencies to talk technology with many great people. “How green is this solution” is a topic on many minds lately – no matter which topic of discussion. Being an engineer by trade and scientist by education, I will typically dive into the details of around each component’s power consumption and the discussion ends with some simple math multiplying a number of units by their thermal numbers. However, there is so much more to the overall impact, and as I walk in and out of these locations, I am always amazed at the number of larger issues with much larger impacts that are unresolved or overlooked. For more information on these items, here is a blog. The Eco-Technology Great Debates provide a unique and entertaining forum to expand your understanding of today’s most pressing data center and IT issues. Come hear industry leaders take up both sides of some of the hot topics facing the industry. The energy consumption of servers and data centers has doubled in the past five years and is expected to almost double again in the next five, costing about USD 7.4 billion annually.1 There is no single right answer on what to do about this critical situation. Take an active step in solving this challenge by attending *The Eco-Technology Great Debates* and IDF at a special money-saving price. Register for IDF now and enter promo code *CLOECOT* (admission to the Eco-Technology Great Debate and a 2-day pass to IDF) or enter promo code *CLTECOT*(admission to the Eco-Technology Great Debate and a full conference pass to IDF). The debate takes place at the San Francisco Marriott Hotel (located across the street from IDF). 1 [EPA Reports Significant Energy Efficiency Opportunities for U.S. Servers and Data Centers (August 2007).|http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/0de87f2b4bcbe56e852572a000651fde/4be8c9799fbceb028525732c0053e1d5!OpenDocument]last_img read more

VMworld – Intel’s online booth – check it out.

first_imgFor the event next week @ VMWorld we have created a virtual booth, check it out here: Intel Virtual BoothAlso follow Hank Lea as he explores vmworld and blogs about the event.last_img

Newsletter: Drop in solutions, expired certs, Fast Call for Help, and more

first_imgThis week, I decided to highlight our Use Case Reference Designs. Have you checked these out? We have a team dedicated to building these designs and they enable you to quickly implement specific Intel vPro functionality. Our engineers and tech writers put together a package of scripts, instructions, etc – whatever is needed to make the design return value to you quickly.Three of our Solution Architects have content showcased in this week’s newsletter. You’ll find expert info on topics such as expired GoDaddy certs, implementing Fast Call for Help with LANDesk, and communicating with Intel® AMT outside of your management console. Read the newsletter or subscribe to receive it in your inbox automatically. This newsletter goes out every two weeks.last_img read more

Mitigating threats in the cloud using Intel® TXT and Trusted Compute Pools

first_imgMaybe, because of his programmer background, Linus Torvalds defended the monolithic kernel, a more pragmatic model where the kernel and device drivers are on the same privilege context. Therefore, on the Operating System construction point of view, it becomes simplified because avoid context changes due inter-processes calls.Time showed that Linus Torvalds was right. Linux became popular and MINIX, developed by Andrew, didn’t. David Cutler (Microsoft architect and Windows Internals’ author) also believed on monolithic kernel that predominated. However, it doesn’t means that Tanembaum’s concerns weren’t relevant, is completely the opposite, from security standpoint, creation of security boarders isolating kernel, drivers, services and applications, and is an advance over Linus’ model. However, kernel monolithic showed fastest development cycle due its simplicity and claimed by better performance. I know that it’s a controversial point, since there are many examples of operating systems developed under microkernel model with excellent performance such as Cisco IOS that arrives embedded into Cisco routers.From security view, in the monolithic kernel any vulnerability or malware loaded by devices drivers or any kind of code running in ring 0 context may compromise the entire system, while in microkernel model, where you have a minimum kernel footprint, non-extensible and isolated in its own TCB (Trusted Computing Base) is more resistant against attacks.What TXT essentially do, is bring the security advantages of microkernel model to actual platform with enhancements. For a cloud environment, Intel® TXT is able to Measure Launch (ML) the BIOS, hypervisor and attest the integrity of each VM individually as described in the following picture: How important is uptime to you when it comes to cloud? In order to archive higher 9’s you should have a structured plan to deal with root causes of unavailability: operational errors, components failures, power outages, security threats, etc. In this post, I’ll discuss about one aspect of security concerns: Integrity.Actually, how do you manage to guarantee that Virtual Machines (VMs) running on top of hypervisor and hypervisor itself is in a trusted and well-known condition? The short answer is simple: You don’t, at least if you don’t have a root of trust tamper resistant that can attest integrity of chain of trust, and Intel® Trusted Execution Technology (TXT) has this ability.Threat AnalysisTo understand the role of Intel® TXT and why a root of trust is so important, I’ll guide you in a brief description of x86 architecture and how popular operating systems are designed.Since Intel 286, every instruction executed on x86 architecture can be executed in 4 different privilege levels that are defined by 2 bits. So, when an instruction is executed with the 00b (0d), it means the highest privilege level called ring 0 or kernel mode. Otherwise, when these bits are equaled to 11b (3d), it means the lowest privilege level called ring 3 or user mode.On the first 90s, at USENET, Prof. Andrew S. Tanembaum (Computer Network’s writer) and Linus Torvalds (Linux’s creator) discussed about the models that the Operating System should be built on Intel x86 architecture. Andrew defended the microkernel model, an elegant proposal by the implementation point of view since the system would be disposed between the 4 privilege levels, as we can see on the diagram bellow Trusted Compute PoolsExtrapolating this capability to cloud infrastructure allow us to develop the concept of Trusted Compute Pools, where you group machine with TXT capable and enabled in a cluster of trust.center_img This capability is present on various hardware models and you can use it with VMWare ESX 4.1 U1,  Linux/Xen using the tboot code as described in this post and also using HyTrust or Parallels with more coming.last_img read more

Do you know the Six Irrefutable Laws of Information Security?

first_imgIf you don’t know them, check out in this slideshare:Six Irrefutable Laws of Information SecurityMalcolm Harkins, Intel’s VP & Chief Information Security Officer shared these laws in a recent security conference. They provide a great framework for security professionals trying to balance business needs and growth while mitigating enterprise security risks.Thanks, ElaineIntelITsmelast_img

Selecting the Right BYOD Strategy

first_imgIT organizations around the world are or should be struggling with this critical decision. And it is not an easy one.  The number of strategies available to an IT organization are on par with the number of devices and OS variants that employees want to bring in. Earlier this week, my social computing alerts shared an article titled “one way to manage BYOD” written by Kevin McCaney of Government Computing News. I was really excited by this article because Kevin based his article on what we were doing inside Intel IT – thanks KevinWhat got me writing this blog was that Kevin helped me put Intel IT’s approach in a broader perspective across the spectrum of strategies available to IT by comparing our approach to those that some of our peers have taken or are considering.  The spectrum or strategies for BYOD range from Say Yes to Everything Say No to AnySomething in the Middle A balanced, middle-of-the-road approach has allowed Intel IT to maximize BYOD business value through providing flexibility to employees (boosting productivity) while minimizing the IT cost/burden of support while maintaining a no compromise approach to security and enterprise risk.At Intel IT, our approach is working and evolving as fast as the number of device requests coming in from our employeesWhat approach do you and your IT org take to supporting the consumerization of IT?last_img read more

The Intel® Core™ M Processor: The Game Changer Is Here

first_imgComputing, Evolved.As notebooks and tablets get smaller and faster, the user experience gets better and better. Extra battery life and superb performance means you’ll spend less time looking around for a wall outlet, and more time getting work done. By adopting Intel Core M-powered devices like 2 in 1s, businesses can foster creativity, collaboration, and improve productivity in their organizations.To learn more about Intel’s innovative products and the new Core M Processor, click here. Thinner, faster, more power-efficient. That’s what device manufacturers are constantly aspiring toward, but it takes more than aspiration to get there. Enter Intel’s new Core™ M processor, an unprecedented development in chip architecture that will change the face of mobile computing. As Forbes recently put it, the Intel Core M processor is a “game changer.”High Performance, More PowerThe Intel Core™ M processor is built to deliver blazing speeds and up to 40% better graphics performance, all while increasing the battery life of your device by up to 1.7 hours. Additionally, the processor boasts an even smaller footprint that doesn’t require a fan, making it ideal for the razor-thin devices of the future. By building around a Core M processor that is only 14nm, device manufacturers can build hardware that is less than 9mm thin — the possibilities for refining mobile device capabilities are boundless. 1 Software and workloads used in performance tests may have been optimized for performance only on Intel microprocessors. Performance tests such as SYSmark* and MobileMark* are measured using specific computer systems, components, software, operations, and functions. Any change to any of those factors may cause the results to vary. You should consult other information and performance tests to assist you in fully evaluating your contemplated purchases, including the performance of that product when combined with other products. For more information, go to intel.com/performance .2. Intel Core M-5Y10 processor (up to 2 GHz, 4T/2C, 4M cache) on Intel Reference Platform. BIOS: v80.1. Graphics: Intel HD Graphics (driver v. 15.36.3650). Memory: 4 GB (2 x 2 GB) Dual-Channel LPDDR3-1600. SSD: Intel 160 GB. OS: Windows 8.1 Update RTM. 35WHr battery. Software and workloads used in performance tests may have been optimized for performance only on Intel microprocessors. Performance tests such as SYSmark and MobileMark are measured using specific computer systems, components, software, operations, and functions. Any change to any of those factors may cause the results to vary. You should consult other information and performance tests to assist you in fully evaluating your contemplated purchases, including the performance of that product when combined with other products. For more information, go to intel.com/performance3 Requires an Intel® Wireless Display (Intel® WiDi)-enabled system, compatible adapter, and TV. 1080p and Blu-ray* or other protected con-tent playback only available on select Intel processor-based systems with built-in visuals enabled, a compatible adapter and media player, and supporting Intel® WiDi software and graphics driver installed. Consult your PC manufacturer. For more information, see intel.com/go/widi.last_img read more

Intel’s New Innovation Engine Enables Differentiated Firmware

first_imgHistorically, platform embedded firmware limits the ways system-builders can customize, innovate, and differentiate their offerings. Today, Intel is streamlining the route for implementing new features with the creation of an “open engine” for system-builders to run firmware of their own creation or choosing.This important advance in platform architecture is known as the Innovation Engine. It was introduced this week at the Intel Developer Forum in San Francisco.The Innovation Engine is a small Intel® architecture processor and I/O sub-system that will be embedded into future Intel data center platforms. The Innovation Engine enables system builders to create their own unique, differentiating firmware for server, storage, and networking markets.  Some possible uses include hosting lightweight manageability features in order to reduce overall system cost, improving server performance by offloading BIOS and BMC routines, or augmenting the Intel® Management Engine for such things as telemetry and trusted boot.These are just a few of the countless possibilities for the use of this new path into the heart of Intel processors. Truthfully, the uses for the Innovation Engine are limited only by the feature’s capability framework and the developer’s imagination.It’s worth noting that the Innovation Engine is reserved for system-builder’s code, and not Intel firmware. Intel supplies only the hardware, and the system builder can tailor things from there. And as for security, the Innovation Engine code is cryptographically bound to the system-builder. Code not authenticated by the system-builder will not load.As the name suggests, the Innovation Engine will drive a lot of great benefits for OEMs and, ultimately, end users. This embedded core in future Intel processors will foster creativity, innovation, and differentiation, while creating a simplified path for system-builders implementing new features and enabling full customer visibility into code and engine behavior.Ultimately, this upcoming enhancement in Intel data center platforms is all about using Intel technology advancements to drive widespread innovation in the data center ecosystem.Have thoughts you’d like to share? Pass them along on Twitter via @IntelITCenter, you can also take a listen to our IDF podcasts for more on the Innovation Engine.last_img read more

New Intel® Xeon® E Processor Delivers a Boost in Entry Workstation Performance and Capabilities

first_imgWorkstation users are the creative and technical heart of many successful businesses. Their demanding workloads drive the need for increased workstation performance from generation to generation.  Aging workstations that cannot cope with today’s workloads become impediments to business intelligence, productivity, and creativity.  These power-users need tools and technology that will help them do their best work.In September 2017, we announced the breakthrough performance of Intel® Xeon® Scalable processors for dual-socket expert workstations alongside the new Intel® Xeon® W processor, delivering optimized performance for mainstream workstations.  We are continuing the momentum with today’s launch.Introducing the new Intel® Xeon® E ProcessorToday, we are pleased to introduce the new Intel® Xeon® E processor. Intel is committed to delivering the ultimate workstation performance for creative professionals worldwide. The Intel® Xeon® E processor, successor to the Intel® Xeon® E3 processors, is designed for entry workstations, where CAD and digital content creators need powerful single-threaded application performance with a platform optimized for reliability and affordability. It joins our portfolio of workstation-specific solutions including Intel® Xeon® Scalable processors for expert and Intel® Xeon® W processors for mainstream workstation professionals.The new Intel® Xeon® E processor delivers the enhanced performance and built-in visuals demanded by industry professionals. Compared to its predecessor, the new processor offers enhancements in processor speed, memory capabilities, security and reliability features. The Intel® Xeon® E processor is available with Intel® UHD graphics supported by a broad set of workstation applications.Step Up to Professional Workstation PerformanceThe new Intel® Xeon® E processor supports the increasing demands and workflows of professional CAD, media, and content creation.  With improvements in processor speed, enhanced memory capabilities, advanced hardware-enhanced security, and reliability features available with support for 4K UHD Intel® graphics technology.  The new Intel® Xeon® E processor now features up to 6 cores, with up to 4.7 GHz Intel® Turbo Boost Technology 2.0 performance and up to 64GB of DDR4 2666 MHz ECC memory support, delivering up to 1.71X improved performance compared to a four-year-old entry workstation2, and up to 1.36X improved performance compared to a prior generation1 entry workstation. When combined with a VR-ready professional GPU, the new Intel® Xeon® E processor exceeds the minimum processor requirements from the leading VR headset manufacturers, delivering an outstanding professional quality VR design experience.Putting the Processors to WorkOur partners are now shipping the new Intel® Xeon® E processors in their workstation offerings. Dell, HP, and Lenovo are among the first companies shipping with today’s launch. Equip your technical and creative teams with the latest tools to power your business.“At Dell we are committed to offering customers of all sizes a range of solutions to suit their individual needs and budgets,” said Rahul Tikoo, Vice President and General Manager, Dell Precision workstations. “Featuring the new Intel® Xeon® E processors, our Dell 3000 series entry-level workstation towers and 1U rack are designed to power through intensive workloads—all have a substantially smaller footprint and are available at an impressively affordable price point.”“HP Z Workstations customers are some of the most power-hungry customers on the planet,” said Carol Hess, Vice President Worldwide Product Management for HP Workstations, HP Inc. “New Intel® processors will help HP deliver superb performance for the rapidly changing and increasingly schedule-driven workflows customer face today.”“At Lenovo, our goal is to equip our workstation users with hardware that will deliver next-level performance and reliability,” said Rob Herman, General Manager of Lenovo Workstations. “The addition of the new Intel® Xeon® E processors to our ThinkStation* P330 family of workstations delivers outstanding performance, reliability and visuals our customers need and shows Intel’s unwavering commitment to delivering trusted, professional-grade solutions.”To learn more about Intel® Xeon® E processors and our other solutions for workstations, visit   www.intel.com/workstations or check out our Ultimate Workstation Performance Product Brief and Comparison Guide. 1 Up to 1.71X performance improvement on a 4 year refresh. Config : 1x Intel® Xeon® E-2186G Processor, Platform: Moss Beach, 4 x 8GB DDR4 2666 ECC(32GB 2666MHz ) ,OS: Ubuntu 17.10 (Kernel 4.13.0-35-generic) ,Benchmark: SPECrate*2017_fp_base (Estimated), Compiler: ICC 18.0.0.128,BIOS: CNLSE2R1.R00.X119.B54.1803131307,  03/13/2018 (uCode:0x84), Storage: SSD S3710 Series 800GB, Score: 35.3 compared to 1x Intel® Xeon® E3-1286v3 Processor Platform: S1200RP, 4 x 8GB DDR4 1600 (32GB 1600MHz ) ,OS: Ubuntu 17.10 (Kernel 4.13.0-35-generic), Benchmark: SPECrate*2017_fp_base (Estimated), Compiler: ICC 18.0.0.128,BIOS: S1200RP.86B.03.04.0006.030520181328,  03/05/2018 (uCode:0x24), Storage: SSD S3710 Series 800GB, Score: 20.3, measured as of june 20182 Up to 1.36X performance improvement gen on gen. Config : 1x Intel® Xeon® E-2186G Processor, Platform: Moss Beach, 4 x 8GB DDR4 2666 ECC(32GB 2666MHz ) ,OS: Ubuntu 17.10 (Kernel 4.13.0-35-generic) ,Benchmark: SPECrate*2017_int_base (Estimated), Compiler: ICC 18.0.0.128,BIOS: CNLSE2R1.R00.X119.B54.1803131307,  03/13/2018 (uCode:0x84), Storage: SSD S3710 Series 800GB, score: 41.9 compared to 1x Intel® Xeon® Processor E3-1285v6 Platform: S1200SP, 4 x 8GB DDR4 2400MHz ,OS: Ubuntu 17.10 (Kernel 4.13.0-35-generic), Benchmark: SPECrate*2017_int_base (Estimated), Compiler: ICC 18.0.0.128,BIOS: S1200SP.86B.03.01.1029.012520180838 (uCode:0x84), Storage: SSD S3710 Series 800GB, Score: 30.7, measured as of june 2018last_img read more

Love is an Open Wound

first_imgEveryone knows relationships can be stressful, but a new study indicates that the verbal sticks and stones partners throw at each other can actually compromise their health. Researchers have found that when spouses fight, their cuts, scrapes, and blisters take longer to heal than when they are getting along.Married or not, wounds begin to heal when compounds called cytokines tell disease fighting cells to start dividing and replicating. Some types of cytokines help the body manufacture immune cells on site, while others help recruit new cells to the scene of the crime. Previous research has shown that cytokine levels are elevated in people involved in stressful, long-term relationships, but no one had investigated how this affects wound healing.So Janice Keicolt-Glaser, a psychologist at Ohio State University in Columbus, teamed up with her husband, immunologist Ron Glaser, to track cytokine levels in married couples. After screening 266 couples for health and marital quality, the team invited 42 long-term, happily married partners to make two separate over-night trips to the hospital. During the visits, the researchers drew blood from the volunteers and created a series of small, uniform blisters on each patient’s arm using a suction device. At the first visit, the couples were told to have a supportive, comfortable conversation; the next time, they were asked to try to resolve a difficult marital conflict.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Based on the results, couples would be better off fighting when they’re injury-free. On average, blisters took a day longer to heal when spouses squabbled versus when they got along, the researchers report in the December issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry. In addition, cytokine levels at the site of injury were 8% lower after stressful conversations than after pleasant ones. And the more hostile partners were toward each other, the longer they took to heal. Those that demonstrated the most tension during an argument took two days longer to heal than calmer couples. Marital arguments didn’t have to be overtly hostile to slow wound healing, however. Even the high stress couples rarely resorted to more than eye rolling, sarcasm, or inattentiveness, says Keicolt-Glaser. “These weren’t knock down, drag out fights.””The work substantially advances our understanding of how marital interactions can impact physical and mental health risk,” says Michael Irwin, a psychiatrist at the Semel Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles.Related siteMore on stress and wound healinglast_img read more

Patent Foe Sues Monsanto on Modified Crops

first_imgThe Public Patent Foundation (PUBPAT), an opponent of patents with very expansive claims, has sued St. Louis, Missouri-based company Monsanto, makers of various genetically modified seeds. PUBPAT is a New York City-based nonprofit which has won victories in patent fights with Columbia University, Myriad Genetics, Pfizer, and the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation, which owns patents on stem cell technology. From PUBPAT’s press on the Monsanto suit: NEW YORK – March 29, 2011 – On behalf of 60 family farmers, seed businesses and organic agricultural organizations, the Public Patent Foundation (PUBPAT) filed suit today against Monsanto Company to challenge the chemical giant’s patents on genetically modified seed. The organic plaintiffs were forced to sue preemptively to protect themselves from being accused of patent infringement should they ever become contaminated by Monsanto’s genetically modified seed, something Monsanto has done to others in the past. Monsanto says the suit is “false, misleading and deceptive.” Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) The modified seed in question is known as Roundup Ready in its various forms because it is genetically modified to be resistant to herbicide, making it easier to control weeds that grow near the crop. PUBPAT continues: “This case asks whether Monsanto has the right to sue organic farmers for patent infringement if Monsanto’s transgenic seed should land on their property,” said Dan Ravicher, PUBPAT’s Executive Director and Lecturer of Law at Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law in New York. “It seems quite perverse that an organic farmer contaminated by transgenic seed could be accused of patent infringement, but Monsanto has made such accusations before and is notorious for having sued hundreds of farmers for patent infringement, so we had to act to protect the interests of our clients.” Monsanto says: We’ve briefly read the allegations of the PUBPAT suit and press statement and find many of these allegations to be false, misleading and deceptive. Here are the facts: Monsanto has not ever sued and has publicly committed to not sue farmers over the inadvertent presence of biotechnology traits in their fields. Biotechnology crops have provided a wealth of benefits to farmers and the environment. It is well established that farmers growing biotech crops realize many benefits including increased yields and lower production costs, and the use of these crops have resulted in an increase in the adoption of conservation tillage practices that reduce soil erosion. These benefits are the reason why farmers have overwhelmingly and willingly chosen to use these technologies year after year. These crops have been grown widely in the United States for the past 15 years, and have been planted on more than 2 billion acres by 15 million farmers throughout the world. Plaintiffs allegations regarding patent validity are contrary to long established legal precedent which supports the validity of Monsanto’s patents and others in the biotechnology field. The plaintiffs’ approach is a publicity stunt designed to confuse the facts about American agriculture. These efforts seek to reduce private and public investment in the development of new higher-yielding seed technologies. This attack comes at a time when the world needs every agricultural tool available to meet the needs of a growing population, expected to reach 9 billion people by 2050. While we respect the views of organic farmers as it relates to the products they choose to grow, we don’t believe that American agriculture faces an all-or-nothing approach. Rather we believe that farmers should have the ability to choose the best agricultural tools to farm their own land and serve their own end-market customers. We are confident that these multiple approaches can coexist side-by-side and sustainably meet the world’s food needs over next 40 years. We stand behind the American farmer, remain committed to investing in new tools to help American agriculture meet the needs of our growing world, and are prepared to vigorously defend ourselves. It is unlikely that the plucky nonprofit will completely defang the ag giant, but given Ravicher’s track record, it would be risky to bet against his group not winning a single concession in the case.last_img read more

Five University Teams Bid for New Research Campus in New York City

first_imgNew York City today received bids from at least five university-based teams to build a science and engineering center in the city. In July, Mayor Michael Bloomberg announced that he would put up $100 million in seed money and land for universities and corporations willing to invest in a facility aimed at turning the metropolis into a high-tech hub similar to Silicon Valley. An economic analysis conducted earlier this year suggested that such an institute could generate as many as 30,000 jobs in the metropolis. Eighteen partnerships representing 27 public and private groups initially expressed interest in the project. Although city officials would not comment on how many bids were received by today’s 4 p.m. deadline, five groups announced that they had jumped into the ring. Three of the teams are led by New York state-based private institutions: Cornell, Columbia, and New York universities. All have multiple partners from academia and industry. The other two groups are led by Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, and Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, which is additionally partnering with NYU in its proposal. Bloomberg is expected to announce his pick by early 2012 and has said he hopes the winner will break ground on the new facility before he leaves office in 2013. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)last_img read more

United States Calls for Ambitious New Push to Curb HIV/AIDS Epidemic

first_imgU.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton today declared that recent scientific advances in HIV/AIDS have created a “historic opportunity” to change the course of the pandemic and usher in a generation where no children are born with the virus, the risk of becoming infected plummets for teens and adults, and those who do become infected receive drugs that both ward off disease and make them less infectious. “Creating an AIDS-free generation has never been a policy priority for the United States government until today because this goal would have been unimaginable just a few years ago,” Clinton told a packed auditorium at the U.S. National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. This new tack, which Clinton repeatedly acknowledged was “ambitious,” grows out of several recent scientific advances, including evidence revealed in May that starting antiretroviral (ARV) treatment long before someone becomes ill from HIV can cut the risk of infected people spreading the virus to their long-term partners by 96%. In addition to this so-called treatment as prevention, she noted that trials of male circumcision have shown that it can cut the risk of transmission by 60% or more. “The finish line is not yet in sight, but we know we can get there because now we know the route we need to take,” said Clinton. “It requires all of us to put a variety of scientifically proven prevention tools to work in concert with each other.” Clinton did not commit significant new money to ramping up treatment as prevention, male circumcision, or prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs. Instead, she said “no institution in the world has done more than the United States government” in the fight against HIV/AIDS, and she positioned the Obama Administration as taking the lead in the push to change the trajectory of the epidemic. “The world could not have come this far without us and it will not defeat AIDS without us,” said Clinton. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) The audience gave Clinton several standing ovations, and policy leaders, HIV/AIDS advocates, and nongovernmental organizations that focus on the epidemic praised what several called her “bold” vision about applying recent prevention advances. “For the first time we have a political leader taking the scientific evidence and putting it out there that we can use it to save lives,” said Michel Sidibé, head of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Mitchell Warren, head of the AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition based in New York City, noted that the timing of the speech was key, too, as World AIDS Day is coming up on 1 December and the next international AIDS conference will take place in Washington, D.C., in July 2012. “This is putting a stake in the ground that says U.S. policy is committed to ending the epidemic,” says Warren. “That’s a huge statement.” After noting the U.S. government has made major investments in scientific research, the President’s Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Clinton pointedly called on other countries to do more. She chided some donors who were considering reducing contributions, and well-off countries that currently give nothing. “Some emerging powers and nations that are rich in natural resources can afford to give but choose not to,” said Clinton. She also called on countries that receive help to do more, both in funding and leadership, to address their epidemics. “Some countries have allowed money from outside donors to displace their own investments in health programs,” Clinton said. “That has to change and we have to demand that it changes.” Clinton made no mention of using ARVs in uninfected people to protect them from the virus. Large-scale trials of this so-called pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, in the past year found that it could thwart transmission via anal sex by 44% and vaginal sex by 73%. But debate continues about whether to use PrEP in resource-constrained countries that still do not offer ARVs to HIV-infected people who are critically in need of treatment. Eric Goosby stresses that the PEPFAR program, which he heads, plans to soon use PrEP. “She was trying to highlight those interventions that have a big impact on dropping incidence,” said Goosby. “PrEP will be used for high-risk populations. It won’t be used for generalized epidemics.” Clinton said figuring out which combinations of proven prevention strategies will work best in a given locale will require more research, noting that the U.S. government recently has invested $50 million on clinical trials to address these questions. She announced that PEPFAR will also receive $60 million in new funding to scale up combination prevention in parts of four countries in sub-Saharan Africa. “To sit on the sidelines now would be devastating,” said Clinton. PEPFAR head Goosby says Clinton’s speech is the first of many to come on the topic from the Obama Administration. “The leadership role that United States has placed on HIV/AIDS will continue to increase, and specifically to look, even in times of economic severity, at how we can increase our impact,” says Goosby. “It really is time to say the opportunity’s here, we need to do it differently, are you willing, world, to get to the table and do it differently. We are very much interested in that dialog.”last_img read more

Spanish Sea Research Consortium in Peril

first_imgHigh interest rates on a loan may scuttle plans to create an international center of excellence in marine research in southern Spain. If ongoing talks don’t succeed within a week, the proposed collaboration could lose its €4.8 million in funding from Spain’s national government. On 21 October, the would-be network, coordinated by the University of Cádiz, was awarded a €4.8 million grant from the International Campus of Excellence (CEI) funding program. Launched in 2008, that program is an initiative by the Spanish Ministry of Education to modernize the country’s universities by encouraging them to form strategic alliances. The 2011 funding round awarded a total of €35 million to eight new CEIs and gave 11 existing ones an additional €40 million. But on 11 November, the rector of the University of Cádiz, Eduardo González Mazo raised the alarm. According to the program’s regulations, the regional government of the winning centers receives the money from the Spanish government in the form of loans, which used to be interest-free. Because of Spain’s fiscal pinch, the loans come with a 5.7% interest rate this year, which the regional government of Andalusia, which sponsors the project, says is too high. Moreover, to enter the loan agreement, regional governments must meet certain fiscal health criteria; González Mazo told the journalists he was “deeply preoccupied” about the center’s funding because the national Ministry of Economy and Finance might not allow Andalusia to take out the loan. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) Pulling together the new marine network, called the International Campus of Excellence of the Sea (CEIMAR), has taken 2 years. The group encompasses the southern universities of Cádiz, Almeria, Huelva, Granada, and Malaga, the University of the Algarve in Portugal, and Abdelmalek Essaâdi University in Morocco, as well as the Spanish Institute of Oceanography, the Spanish National Research Council, and other centers. Thirty-seven foreign universities signed an agreement to collaborate and several companies are also onboard. There are already three CEIs for marine science elsewhere in Spain. But a failure for the University of Cádiz’s project would be “tragic,” mathematician Björn Birnir, of the collaborating University of California, Santa Barbara, wrote in an e-mail to ScienceInsider. “Mediterranean studies will suffer,” he says. “Cádiz has made a name for itself in studying phytoplankton, fish species with marine farming potential, and the effects of pollutants.” The ministry and the regional government have one more week to resolve the problem before the money is redistributed to other consortia. Both parties have reiterated their support to CEIMAR, and González Mazo says he still has high hopes that, one way or another, funding will come through. “We are very excited and have a lot of desire to start working,” he says.last_img read more

South Korea to Reconsider Plan to Drop Evolution Examples From Textbooks

first_img The South Korean government is poised to appoint a new committee that will revisit a controversial plan to drop two examples of evolutionary theory from high school textbooks. The committee, to be led by insect taxonomist Byoung-Hoon Lee, a member of the Korean Academy of Science and Technology, has been asked to re-evaluate requests from a Korean creationist group to drop references to bird and horse evolution that they argue promote “atheist materialism.” At the same time, about 50 prominent Korean scientists are preparing to present government officials with a petition, organized by the Korean Association of Biological Sciences, which calls for rejecting the proposed changes. “When these things are done, I think it will turn out that after all Korean science will not surrender to religion, so to speak,” says Jae Choe, an evolutionary biologist at Ewha Womans University in Seoul who helped organize the petition. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) The controversy began in May, when Korea’s Ministry of Education, Science and Technology announced that revised editions of high school textbooks would leave out discussion of two examples of evolution: the Archaeopteryx, an ancient ancestor to birds, and ancestors of the modern horse. The Society for Textbook Revise (STR), an independent offshoot of the Korea Association for Creation Research, had proposed the revisions. According to microbiologist Bun-Sam Lim, the chief of STR’s Scholarship Committee, the organization aims to weed out “atheist materialism” that paints an “unhopeful” worldview for students. The Archaeopteryx and horse examples were targeted as “typical icons of evolutionism,” Lim said in an e-mail. Last month, the Korean media picked up the story, which was first reported by Nature on 5 June, sparking extensive public discussion. Some Korean scientists were particularly upset that the Nature story reported that “anti-evolution sentiment seems to be winning its battle with mainstream science” in Korea, says Choe, who is known as Korea’s Richard Dawkins or E. O. Wilson (Choe’s former Harvard University adviser). “The Nature article was good in one sense, but in another it was quite humiliating to Korean scientists,” says Choe. “We didn’t surrender. We’re not really that frail.” Choe says he also received more than 60 e-mails from high school and elementary school students around the country. “They ask me: ‘What’s going on and why aren’t you responding to this?’ ” he says. Soon, Choe and other researchers began organizing the petition against the textbook changes. Prior to the Nature article, many scientists did not want to “participate in that muddy debate” over the teaching of evolution, says Dayk Jang, an evolutionary scientist at Seoul National University who also helped organize the petition. Choe, for example, hadn’t wanted to debate with creationists because he worried that “responding to them somehow legitimizes their actions.” On 24 June, the controversy prompted the education ministry to announce that it would seek “expert opinions” on the issue from the Korean academy and the Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies before finalizing the revisions. It asked Lee to lead the effort. Now, “I think we have room to fix the situation,” Jang says. He believes that scientists may even be able to persuade officials to replace the Archaeopteryx and horse examples with more compelling examples of evolution, and rework textbooks to be more engaging for students. “We’ve been making good progress,” Choe adds. “After all this hoopla, it looks as if South Korea will not ‘surrender’ to creationist demands.” The STR’s Lim, meanwhile, says the group won’t end its efforts to remove other evolution examples from Korean textbooks “one by one.” But that could be difficult, notes Choe. Government regulations mandate that all Korean science textbooks include a section on evolutionary theory with a discussion of the fossil record. STR sidestepped those rules by targeting two examples of evolution whose exact mechanisms evolutionary biologists still puzzle over, Choe says. “Korean newspapers give the impression that the whole discussion of evolution is disappearing” from textbooks, Choe says, “which is ridiculous, but exactly what the STR was aiming at.” H. Raab/Wikimedia Evolutionary dispute. A Korean creationist group called for deleting discussion of the bird ancestor Archaeopteryx (above) and horse evolution from high school textbooks. last_img read more

Human Nature Sinks HIV Prevention Trial

first_imgATLANTA—A large-scale study of a biomedical intervention that potentially offers novel options for women to protect themselves from HIV infection has, to the surprise of many researchers, failed. But the results say more about the participants’ behavior than the effectiveness of the products being tested. At the 20th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections held here from 3 to 6 March, infectious disease specialist Jeanne Marrazzo of the University of Washington, Seattle, reported the disappointing results of the study known as VOICE, which stands for Vaginal and Oral Interventions to Control the Epidemic. As Marrazzo explained, VOICE began in September 2009 and ended in August 2012, enrolling 5029 women from South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. The study assessed three different strategies to what’s known as pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, which aims to protect uninfected people by giving them anti-HIV drugs each day either orally or vaginally. In one approach, women took a pill that contained the anti-HIV drugs tenofovir and emtricitabine. A second arm of VOICE tested tenofovir pills alone, whereas women in the third arm were given a vaginal gel that contained tenofovir. Other trial participants received inert gel or dummy pills. In all, 312 women became infected with HIV during the study, and there was no statistically significant difference in infection rates between women who received the placebos or PrEP. Tenofovir gel and oral PrEP have worked in other studies with women. But Marrazzo stressed that the VOICE participants simply didn’t use the products as instructed. “By several measures the adherence was disappointingly low,” Marrazzo said. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) Although the researchers attempted to monitor adherence during the study by asking women to report usage and to return unused pills or gel applicators each month, that turned out to badly misrepresent reality. The women reported using PrEP 90% of the time, and their unused returns seemed to validate that figure. But when the researchers later analyzed blood levels of drugs in the women, they found that no more than 30% had evidence of anti-HIV drugs in their body at any study visit. “There was a profound discordance between what they told us, what they brought back, and what we measured,” Marrazzo said. The sobering reality, she said, is that the failure of VOICE says more about human nature than the biomedical mechanisms at work. “We think all this time about these grand interventions, and maybe people don’t want to use them from the get-go,” Marrazzo said. “We need to start listening to people, and if you’re not going to use this, we’re not going to test this.” But virologist Robert Grant of the University of California, San Francisco, who led a large oral PrEP study that worked in men who have sex with men, said he suspects the real problem is the placebo-controlled nature of the study. The women, he said, would have had more incentive to use PrEP if they knew that they were receiving gel or pills that had drug in them. “We need open label demonstration projects that give young women a chance to use PrEP if they know what it is,” Grant said. He added that the women may also have heard about results from the other PrEP studies that worked. “In retrospect, how do you expect people to adhere to a study drug when they think they already know the result.” Sharon Hillier, a reproductive infectious disease specialist at the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania, heads the Microbicide Trials Network that staged the trial and disagreed with Grant. “It’s a bit like the female condom, which likely ‘works,’ but very few women want it even when you give it away,” Hillier said. “PrEP has a place and will be an effective strategy for some people. But if we really want to make a dent in this epidemic, we need to pay attention to what high-risk young women told us: We love getting the services provided by your study but we do not desire the products you are testing.”last_img read more

Census Director Nominee Promises to Control Costs for 2020

first_imgThe biggest challenge facing the U.S. Census Bureau is to rein in the spiraling costs of the decennial census. Yesterday, at his confirmation hearing, the likely next census director told a Senate panel that he could break that cycle for the next census in 2020—but only if the agency is given enough money ahead of time to road-test putting the census online and making other changes in how the data are collected.John Thompson, now president of the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) in Chicago, Illinois, has been nominated by President Barack Obama to succeed Robert Groves as director of the Census Bureau. Trained as a statistician, Thompson knows the bureau well, having spent 27 years there and having led the 2000 census before joining NORC in 2002. And his return to the agency seems like a sure bet judging from the bipartisan support that he received during yesterday’s appearance before the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.The 2010 census cost $13 billion, and that number is projected to exceed $25 billion for the 2020 census. But the committee’s chairman, Senator Tom Carper (D-DE), said that “a $25 billion decennial census is unacceptable.” Minutes later, the panel’s top Republican, Oklahoma Senator Tom Coburn, called the figure “ridiculous.”Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Thompson said he readily agreed that the next census has to cost a lot less than that. Under questioning from Senator Ron Johnson (R-WI), he even promised “to put in place a [2020] census that is no more expensive than in 2010, except for inflation.”Thompson said that the agency has developed four “promising options” to bend the cost curve. The biggest change, he said, would be “to use the Internet as the primary self-response option.” The Census Bureau also wants to cut down on the number of fieldworkers needed to go door-to-door by tapping into the reams of demographic data already collected by other federal agencies. Using existing geographic tools such as Google Maps should cut down on the cost of preparing the address lists that form the basis of each census, he added, and collecting data electronically should reduce the amount of time spent on field operations.But Thompson also reminded lawmakers that there are plenty of wrinkles to be ironed out before these changes can be incorporated into the next census. “To realize this potential,” he said in written answers to questions from the panel, “there must be funding to support the advance research necessary to take full advantage of these opportunities.” His unspoken message was clear: If Congress continues to cut the bureau’s annual budget as part of the overall push to reduce government spending, we won’t be able to work out the kinks in time for April 2020.While controlling costs is the most pressing issue for the agency, Republicans on the Senate panel also used the hearing to register their unhappiness with what they regard as inappropriate and intrusive questions on the decennial census and its longer and more frequent cousin, the monthly American Community Survey (ACS). The issue has become a rallying point for those concerned about privacy and trust in government, said Senator Kelly Ayotte (R-NH). “Some of these questions are quite personal,” she told Thompson. “They would get my dander up.” To make her point, she cited a question on the ACS about whether persons with physical or mental disabilities have trouble dressing or bathing themselves.Thompson’s response was diplomatic but firm. “Senator, I certainly do not want to unduly burden the American public,” he said. “And my entire professional career has been devoted to protecting the privacy of survey recipients. … But I also want to collect the important information that this survey is designed to generate.”Johnson also asked Thompson about the possible fines, which he said range from $100 to $5000, facing survey recipients if they do not fill out the questionnaire. Thompson acknowledged that the law exists but said it was a matter for the Justice Department, not the Census Bureau. “I don’t think fining people is the right way to encourage their response,” he said. “We are a data collection agency, not an enforcement agency,” he added, saying that he didn’t know how the fines were assessed.After the hearing, Carper told ScienceInsider that he agreed with Thompson that fines are not a useful tool to encourage participation and that public education is the way to go. “We need to do a better job of explaining to people why we have this survey, how it helps local and state government and the business community,” Carper said. “And that’s not just the job of the federal government.”Asked how quickly he expected Thompson’s nomination to be taken up by the full Senate, Carper said that he was “encouraged” by the presence of Coburn, Johnson, and Ayotte at the hearing and by what he characterized as their “positive” comments. He said that he couldn’t promise a final vote before the Senate recesses in August but added, “I’ve not heard of anything today that would cause us to slow down.” NORC at the University of Chicago John Thompsonlast_img read more